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The industry’s robust growth, however, suggests that managers increasingly rely on personality testing as a tool to optimize their workforces.
The tests are inexpensive compared with other assessment tools, and they are easy to administer—modern tests can be taken online without an examiner present.
Other assessments that harness insights from positive psychology include the VIA Survey of Character Strengths and the Birkman Method.
Some argue that focusing only on the positive is not the optimal way to spur improvement; criticism and realistic self-assessments also contribute to better performance.
Hundreds of assessments exist today, yet over the past century, three have had an outsize impact.
Katharine Briggs began her research into personality in 1917 as a means to understand what she saw as an unlikely attraction between her cherished daughter, Isabel, and fiancé, Clarence Myers.
The Myers-Briggs Foundation warns against using it “for hiring or for deciding job assignments,” yet the test’s popularity persists at many blue-chip firms.
A new branch of psychology emerged in the 1990s that examines how healthy minds remain resilient and flourish.
The MBTI holds that people have preferred modes of perception (sensing or intuition) and judgment (thinking or feeling) as well as attitudes about how they build energy (extroversion or introversion) and their orientation to the outer world (judging or perceiving).
These preferences combine to form 16 personality types.
Widely accepted by academics as the gold standard in the evolving field of personality research, the FFM has informed a host of other personality assessments, including the NEO Personality Inventory (developed by two of the creators of the five-factor model) and the Hogan Personality Inventory (which examines how a person relates to others).
Unlike the MBTI, assessments based on the Big Five can reliably predict job performance, studies show.